Spring 2016: Art History- Early through Contemporary European Ceramics

(All images from ART 865 slideshows by Linda Ganstrom, unless otherwise noted.)

From the earliest beginnings of art, before the ideas of ‘concept’ and ‘intention’, mankind has made efforts to narrate and value the human experience. From the earliest cave paintings, as best we can surmise, artists, as we have come to call them, have documented and named our activities from the mundane to the profound, using whatever was at hand to do so. As early as 400,000 BCE, humans began depicting themselves, consciously recognizing our image and existence in small stone sculptures.

400000

The purpose of these small figures is lost to time, but many theories abound, from playthings for children to fertility rituals and worship. As skills developed, new details and investment in form occurred, and the aesthetic sophistication of each piece notes a step forward in humanity’s search to document and express the significance of their lives. This advancement is easily seen when comparing the Woman from Willendorf, a well-known limestone figure, to the aforementioned stone effigies.

Woman from Willendorf, c 22,000 BCE:

Willendorf

These steps leap forward with the discovery of clay and its ability to be formed and made permanent in fire. While Europe has no broadly documented history with clay until approximately 8,000 BCE, these figurines do occasionally show up, dating back to 26,000 BCE, as this figure from the Czech Republic indicates.

CzechRepublic

As has been noted by many historians, the paintings in the caves at Lascaux could be interpreted as narratives for the daily lives of the hunters and gatherers who populated the area at the time.

Lascaux, 15,000 BCE:

Lascaux

Beginning about 4,000 BCE, early ceramics began to bridge the gap between representation and function, paving the way for more modern European ceramics.

Pit-comb ware, 4,000 BCE:

PitCombWare

Over time, as function became more important, form also became more intricate, and the more intricate it became, the more valued it was, as its fragility dictated a more sedentary lifestyle, and often that sedentary lifestyle came as a result of personal wealth.

Here, we make a leap to the 1500s the work of the Palissy school. The advent of porcelain, and Bernard Palissy’s efforts toward replicating the purity and color of said materials, as well as his regard for the natural world, creates a window into a section of the culture at the time. With royal patronage, the Palissy school created a wide range of semi-functional to decorative works, representing the natural world and humanity’s connection to it.

Palissy

As with Palissy’s obession with porcelain and his fortunate royal patronage (until his death in prison for expressing errant religious views), so was Sevres porcelain work of the 17- and 1800s, championed by the aristocracy.¬†With the patronage of King Louis XV, French Sevres ware became an indicator of wealth and culture. Figurines were again in fashion, though instead of depicting or revering the figure in a ritual sense, the Sevres forms depicted narratives from popular performances, indirectly giving voice to the culture of the time.

The Grape Eaters, 1700s CE:

GrapeEaters1700s

The Sevres work was primarily a commodity of the wealthy, and the factories struggled to remain solvent, while still producing intricate and functional work.

Sevres1759

Under Napoleon’s reign, and under the new direction of Alexandre Brongniart, Sevres production became more available to a broader audience.

Sevres1834

Now, how one might relate the delicacy and grand flourishes of the Sevres-type ware to the earliest figurative pieces like those from the Czech Republic may seem like a stretch. However, if each of these expressions is taken as a representation of what is of value to each of these cultures, the connections make sense. We create and revere what identifies us, whether it be a small ritual figurine, or a gilded vase. These things mark each of us, whether maker or owner, as a part of that piece of history, filed in time against what is important to us as a culture.

This holds true moving forward into more modern times. Relics of the naturalism of Palissy and the grandiose delicacy of the Sevres eras show up again and again in contemporary ceramic art. While we can look back and see these connections as intentional on the part of the artist in many ways, how will this be interpreted in future centuries? When these documented connections are lost, the roots are still there, winding through history and tying this whole grand timeline together.

Jennifer Allen, celebrating the natural world:

JenniferAllen

Chris Boger, the figure:

ChrisBogerBlueDelft

And Kristen Kieffer, the delicate beauty of functional ware:

KristenKiefferMugs

May we all bear our connections to the past, and our efforts to document and narrate what is important to us, and therefor bookmark our place in history, with such attention and passion as those who came before.

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Spring 2016: Materials and Processes- Triaxial Blends

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Top: Custer Feldspar, Left: EPK, Right: Whiting, fired to Cone 10 in Reduction

Upon first blush, these materials interacted surprisingly well with my current clay body. Obviously, some in their solo state will not be so great, but it didn’t take much of an additional ingredient to make them adhere.

Most notably, EPK solo was almost adhered, but with 25% whiting did not adhere at all. 50/50 EPK and Whiting, the middle bottom, adhered somewhat, and was a delightful crispy, hard surface. Whiting by itself peeled off, but with 25% EPK formed a slightly crusty surface, alluding to a fake ash, but a step or two too dry.

Along the left side, EPK with 25% Custer crazed heavily and did adhered only marginally better than the EPK with 25% Whiting, but was a more interesting surface, with smaller crazing patterns than the Whiting combo. Middle left, 50/50 EPK and Custer, is a quite dry matte with very small crazing patterns and hard and satisfying feel. Custer solo is a very glassy and white surface where it pooled and added a gentle sheen to the bare clay, but crackled when thick in the inside. 75% Custer and 25% EPK is a buttery, hard grayish white that may warrant further exploration.

Along the right side, 75% Whiting with 25% Custer also echoes a fake ash, but appears to want to crystallize and begin to bubble where it thickens. Its base is grayish and thickens through gold to a glossy brown at its thickest. 50/50 Whiting and Custer a slightly more matte version of 75/25. As noted above, 100% Custer is very glassy. 75% Custer with 25% Whiting is a glassy grayish that brings out the iron speckles in the clay really nicely. A good fit for this clay body, and allows the color and texture to come through.

In the interior triangle, top, 50% Custer/25%EPK/25% Whiting, is probably the most exciting result for me. It has an eggshell matte finish, brings out the iron of the clay, and is smooth to the touch.

Left bottom of the interior triangle, 50%EPK/25%Custer/25%Whiting, is the second most exciting. It is a tad crusty to the touch, but brings out the iron in the clay AND gets an orange halo at the thin edges.

Right bottom has potential as well, but doesn’t grab me quite as much as the others. It is a 50% Whiting/25% Custer/25% EPK combo, and is the closest of these to a fake ash. Its base is a grayish white that goes through yellow to greenish where it is thickest. It does not appear to run excessively, which is a plus.

Overall, this combination of materials has great potential, and the inner triangle may warrant further, more incremental exploration, as well as colorant testing.